Tirupati Knowledge Guide
According to Varaha Purana, during Treta Yugam, Lord Sri Rama resided here along with Sita Devi and Lakshmana on his return from Lankapuri.
Tirumala (Upper Tirupati) was an established centre of Vaishnavism around the 5th century A.D. The city became great Vaishnava centre during the time of Ramanujacharya in 11th Century, from where Srivaishnavism spread to other parts of Andhra Desa. Srikurmam Temple in Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh bears the inscription saying Tirupati Srivaishnavula Raksha. Tirupati survived the Muslim invasions. During the early 1300s Muslim invasion of South India, the deity of Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam was brought to Tirupati for safekeeping. The temple town for most of the medieval era part of Vijayanagara Empire until the 17th century and its rulers contributed considerable resources and wealth notable by Krishna Deva Raya and Achyuta Deva Raya, Sadasiva Raya and Tirumala Deva Raya. The temple was built and upgraded in parts by various kingdoms. The inscriptions in the temple were found in Kannada, Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu languages which specify the contributions of the Pallava Kingdom around the 9th century AD, Chola Kingdom around the 10th century AD and the Vijayanagara Empire in the 14th century AD. During the 15th century, Sri Tallapaka Annamacharya sung many songs in praise of the holy town in Telugu. He compared it to be divine, including the rocks, streams, trees, animals, and adds that it is heaven on the earth. One example of such a song is: kaTTedura vaikunTamu kANAchaina konDa teTTalAya mahimalE tirumala konDa || vEdamulE Silalai velasinadi konDa yEdesa puNya rAsulE yErulainadi konDa gAdili brahmAdi lOkamula konalu konDa Sree dEvuDunDETi SEshAdri konDa || There was no human settlement at Lower Tirupati until 1500. With the growing importance of Upper Tirupati, a village formed at the present-day Kapilatheertham Road area and was named "kotturu". It was later shifted to the vicinity of Govindarajaswamy Temple which was consecrated around the year 1130 CE. Later the village grew into its present-day form around Govindaraja Swamy Temple which is now the heart of the city. It has now gained a lot of popularity as a tourism place.
In 1932, Tirumala Venkateswara Temple was handed over to Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams by the TTD Act of 1932. In 2006, Tirupati Urban Development Authority (TUDA) and TTD together conducted "Tirupati Utsavam" which focused on the history of development of Tirupati town, kings who visited Tirumala and their contribution for development of the temple. The fourth World Telugu Conference, a conference for furtherance of Telugu language, was conducted at Tirupati during December 2012 for three days. In January 2017, the 104th Indian Science Congress (ISCA) meeting was held in Tirupati.
The city celebrates all major Hindu festivals which includes Sankranti, Ugadi, Krishna Janmashtami, Maha Shivaratri, Ganesh Chaturthi, Deepavali, Rama Navami, Kartik Poornima etc. Srivari Brahmotsavam is a nine-day event, celebrated during the months of September–October, the temple of Tirumala witness lakhs of devotees. During this festival, the processional deity Malayappa of Venkateswara Temple, along with his consorts Sridevi and Bhudevi, is taken in a procession in four mada streets around the temple on different Vahanams. Tirupati also celebrates a carnival named as Tirupati Ganga Jatara, held during second week of May every year. This is a week long festival where Goddess Gangamma (Grama Devatha) is worshiped. The tank behind the temple of Padmavathi Temple, Tiruchanur has Padma Pushkarini, where Chakra Snanam will be held on last day of Annual Padmavathi Brahmotsavams (Panchami Teertham). It will witness lakhs of Devotees taking a dip in the holy waters.Vaikunta Ekadasi, the day on which it is believed that Vaikunta Dwarams will be opened and the most important Vasihnavite festival, is celebrated in Tirumala and Tirupati with grandeur. Rathasapthami is another festival, celebrated during February, when Lord Venkateswara's processional deity (Malayappa) is taken in a procession around the temple on seven different vahanas from early morning to late night.Sri Krishna janmastami also known as Gokulashtami is celebrated with great fervor at Tirupati. The Lotus Temple belonging to International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKCON) will be illuminated with lamps and paintings displaying themes from Srimad Bhagavatham. The celebrations include offering prayers to Sri Krishna, Utlotsavam, Annamayya Kirtana alapana, Geetha Parayanam etc. On this day 'Gokulashtami Asthanam' will be held at Tirumala Venkateswara Temple. TTD will also celebrate the janmastami at Sri Venkateswara Gosamrakshana Shala where prayers will be offered to cows, horses and elephants. The Maha Shivaratri and Kartik Poornima are the most auspicious occasions celebrated in Kapila Theertham.
Tirupati is world-famous for Tirupati Laddu. It is the prasadam at Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala. Tirupati Laddu had got Geographical indication tag which entitles only Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams to make or sell it.
Arts, crafts and architecture
Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams established Sri Venkateswara Museum, one at Tirumala and the other at Tirupati. It has a wonderful collection of Tirupati temple architecture and historical artefacts, such as ancient weaponry, pooja items and idols. It has a comprehensive photo gallery that gives a unique insight into the Tirupati region's culture and traditions. It also boasts a meditation centre. In 1988–89 Archaeological Survey of India had established an Archaeological Museum in the Chandragiri fort at Chandragiri. It exhibits rich collection of stone and metal sculptures of Hindu gods and other cultural vestiges retrieved from other historical places like Gudimallam, Gandikota and Yaganti. It also includes galleries for medieval weaponry swords and daggers, coins and paper documents.