Secunderabad Knowledge Guide
Following the dissolution of the Chalukya empire into four parts in the 11th century, the areas around the present day Hyderabad and Secunderabad came under the control of the Kakatiya dynasty (1158–1310), whose seat of power was at Warangal, 148 km (92 mi) northeast of modern Hyderabad.Secunderabad is also the site where the then Mughal emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur was defeated in the year 1754 by the Maratha Confederacy; the emperor arrived after the death of Nawab Anwaruddin Khan nearby at the Battle of Ambur in 1749. The area around Secunderbad changed hands between various rulers, and the area was part of Nizam's Hyderabad by the 18th century. Modern Secunderabad was founded as a British cantonment after Nizam Asaf Jah II was defeated by the British East India Company. He was then forced to sign the 1798 Treaty of Subsidiary Alliance to get the favor of British troops camped in the village of Ulwul, north-east of Hussain Sagar, the lake that separates Secunderabad from its twin city Hyderabad. In 1803, Nizam Sikandar Jah, the third Nizam of Hyderabad, changed Ulwul's name to Secunderabad after himself. The city was formed in 1806, after the order was signed by the Nizam allotting the land north of Hussain Sagar to set up the British Cantonment.The twin cities are separated by the man-made Hussain Sagar lake, which was built during the reign of the Qutb Shahi dynasty in the 16th century. Unlike Hyderabad, the official language of Secunderabad was English. Secunderabad was exempted from customs duty on imported goods, thus making trade very profitable. Various new markets such as Regimental Bazaar and General Bazaar were created. After the First War of Indian Independence of 1857, the construction of a 7-metre-high (23 ft) wall was started at Trimulgherry and completed in 1867.Secunderabad Junction railway station, one of the largest in India and the zonal headquarters of South Central Railway, was established in 1874. The King Edward Memorial Hospital, now known as Gandhi Hospital, was established in 1851. A civil jail (now a heritage building known as Old Jail complex near Monda Market) was also established. Originally constructed in 1860 as the country house of the British Resident at Hyderabad, the Residency House is now known as the Rashtrapati Nilayam, the official retreat of the President of India. Sir Winston Churchill, the prime minister of the United Kingdom during World War II, was posted in Secunderabad during the 1890s as a subaltern in the British Army. Sir Ronald Ross conducted his initial research on the cause of malaria in the city of Secunderabad. The original building is today called the Sir Ronald Ross Institute and is located on Minister Road. Secunderabad Municipality was first formed in 1945. Later in 1950, along with Hyderabad Municipality, it was upgraded to Secunderabad Municipal Corporation under the Hyderabad Corporation Act, 1950. In 1960, by the Hyderabad Municipal Corporation Act of 1955, Secunderabad Municipal Corporation was merged with Hyderabad Corporation to form a single municipal corporation. Today Secunderabad is part of the Hyderabad district. Post-Independence, the Secunderabad Cantonment Board came under the jurisdiction of the Indian Armed forces. Consequently, large military units were established. The popular neighbourhoods in Secunderabad are Paradise Circle, Trimulgherry, Jawaharnagar colony, Marredpally, Jeera, General Bazar, Sitaphalmandi, Kharkhana, Ranigunj, and New Bhoiguda. Begumpet Airport is close to Secunderabad and served the twin city until early 2008.
Due to the presence of communities such as Parsis and Anglo-Indians alongside British and native inhabitants, Secunderabad was historically a cosmopolitan city. Secunderabad used to be referred to by the locals as Lashkar, meaning the army and the city's culture reflected the same. Secunderabad was a liberal city compared to Hyderabad due to the presence of the British. Plaza cinema was the only theatre in India where viewers could sip a beer while watching a movie. Sangeet was a popular cinema theatre that screened only Western movies.The popular Secunderabad Club was established in 1878, at a country house gifted by Salar Jung I. Secunderabad has a more laid-back atmosphere because it is mainly a residential area with fewer government offices and corporate establishments. Many outdoor events such as the Republic Day parade and fairs are held in the Gymkhana or Parade grounds. Christmas is celebrated by the Christian residents. An annual festival known as the Bonalu is celebrated by the Hindus of the Telangana state. It is usually held during the Ashadha, which is at the start of the monsoon season. Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting, is observed by the local Muslims. There are old temples like Laxminarayana Swami Temple and Mahakali Temple. Local churches like Wesely church and St. Mary's church add to cosmopolitan culture of the city. The culture of Secunderabad is distinctly different from that of Hyderabad's Nawabi culture.