Golaghat Knowledge Guide


Ancient history

The stone inscription of Nagajari-khanikar village of Sarupathar, dating back to the 5th century, reveals that there was an independent kingdom in Doyang – Dhansiri valley, and the relics of ramparts, brick structures, temples, tanks etc. discovered in these areas suggest the presence of a kingdom during 9th and 10th century. The Doyang – Dhansiri valley came under the rule of Ahom's during the 16th century. Prior to that, this part was ruled by the Kacharis known as Herombial. During Ahom rule, this area was under Morongi-khowa Gohain, an administrative officer.

Early modern

In 1751, certain portions of Barpathar, Sarupathar Barangi mauzas of Golaghat circle and Duarbagari of Bokakhat circle were transferred to the United Mikir and N.C. Hills districts.During the declining days of Ahoms when their independent sovereignty had come to an end, Purandar Singha was entrusted in 1833 with the administration of Upper – Assam by the East India Company who had already won mastery over Assam. However, this artificial ornamentation by scion of Ahom Royal House was short lived, and in the year 1838 AD, the whole area was resumed by the authorities of the company and annexed to the British territory with the appointment of Col. Aham White as the political agent on 16 September during the same year. By a proclamation in 1839, the British took possession of Assam, and the area was divided into two districts of Lakhimpur and Sibsagar, where the Doyang – Dhansiri valley was included under the newly formed Golaghat subdivision of Sibsagar district in 1839. Golaghat became the largest subdivision in Assam and comprised Dergaon and Golaghat circles. Golaghat circle was the largest among them with 150.10 sq. mi of area, while Dergaon was the smallest. During this time, Purandar Singha continued to rule with Jorhat as the capital of his territory, Upper – Assam, but with the formation of two other subdivisions, one at Jaipur and the other at Golaghat.On 18 December 1846, Jorhat was declared a subdivision comprising certain portions of Golaghat subdivision. The earliest head post offices of the Assam circle of British Assam were located in Golaghat besides Debrughur, Goahati, Jorhat, Nowgong, Sibsagar, Shillong and Tezpore. Much later after telegraph lines had been stretched between Calcutta and Guwahati in 1869; Golaghat got its speaking wires' system in and around 1876. The lines were stretched to connect Golaghat with Kohima, Shillong with Guwahati, Sibsagar with Nazira and Dibrugarh with Makum.In British Assam, Golaghat derived its importance chiefly because of having advanced communication systems during that time and on account of its connection by road with Kohima. One of the oldest railway lines in Assam was also built in Golaghat. The text noted from the book Glimpse of Assam written by Mrs. SR Ward in 1884 states that, Mr Bryers who was then the Chief of Cachar and Assam Railway Survey succeeded in finding a railway route that would be carried up the Dhunsiri valley to Golaghat... thus giving Assam direct railway communication with Chittagong and Calcutta.

Late modern and contemporary

Golaghat elevated to the position of a full-fledged district in Assam comprising an area of 3,502 km2 (or 1, 352.13 sq. mi) on 5 October 1987 and is known for its notable contribution in India's independence movement, arts and culture, literature and sports in the region. Kushal Konwar, Kamala Miri, Dwariki Das, Biju Vaishnav, Sankar Chandra Barua, Tara Prasad Barooah, Maheshwar Barooah, Rajendra Nath Barua, Gaurilal Jain, Ganga Ram Bormedhi and Dwarikanath Goswami are Indian independence activists of the town. The 19th century writer, Hem Chandra Barua, who authored the first Assamese dictionary Hemkosh hailed from Golaghat. Ghanashyam Barua, a resident of this place, reckoned in the field of politics as the first Central Minister of Assam, translated William Shakespeare's The Comedy of Errors into Assamese along with three of his partners. Several national and international sportspeople in fields of athletics, table tennis, tennis, boxing and football have come from Golaghat. Numaligarh Refinery is the biggest revenue generating industrial sector in Golaghat.


Leisure and entertainment

Golaghat offers required leisure and pleasure trips in and around the region. The place has tea processing units and other old landmarks and resorts, such as the Gymkhana and the Circuit House.The Assam government has planned to launch the homestay scheme which will include building around sixty homestays to boost tourism in the Golaghat region.

Museum and heritage sites and buildings

Music and art

Golaghat exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, music, education, entertainment of the region. It houses some of the oldest institutions of performing arts, and has produced many Assamese film directors and producers, such as Munin Baruah and Tapobrata Barua.