Bijnor Knowledge Guide


Indus Valley Civilization

Alamgirpur, also called "Parasaram ka khera", is an archaeological site of the Indus Valley Civilization that thrived along Yamuna River (c. 3300–1300 BC) from the Harappan-Bara period, located in Meerut district, Uttar Pradesh, India. It is the easternmost site of the civilization. It was partially excavated in 1958 and 1959 by Archaeological Survey of India, that found four cultural periods with intervening breaks; the earliest of them represented by a thickness of 6 feet, belonged to Harappan Culture. Although kiln burnt bricks were in evidence, no structure of this period was found, probably due to the limited nature of the excavations. Brick sizes were, 11.25 to 11.75 in. in length,5.25 to 6.25 in. in breadth and 2.5 to 2.75 in. in thickness; larger bricks averaged 14 in. x 8 in.x 4 in. which were used in furnace only. Typical Harappan pottery was found and the complex itself appeared to be a pottery workshop. Ceramic items found included roof tiles, dishes, cups, vases, cubical dice, beads, terracotta cakes, carts and figurines of a humped bull and a snake. There were also beads and possibly ear studs made of steatite paste, faience, glass, carnelian, quartz, agate and black jasper. Little metal was in evidence. However, a broken blade made of copper was found.

Medieval history

During the time of Akbar, Bijnor was part of his Mughal Empire. During the early 18th century, the Rohilla Pashtuns established their independence in the area called by them Rohilkhand. Around 1748, the Rohilla chief Ali Mohammed Khan made his first annexations in Bijnor, the rest of which soon fell under the Rohilla domination. The northern districts were granted by Ali Mohammed Khan to Khurshid Ahmed Baig, who gradually extended his influence west of the Ganges and at Delhi, receiving the title of Najib-ud-daula with the position of the paymaster of the Mughal forces. Marathas invaded Bijnor who were also instigated by enemies of Rohillas, leading to several battles. Rohilla chief, Najib, who sided with Ahmad Shah Abdali in Panipat, was made vizier of the empire.

Colonial era

In 1772 the Nawab of Oudh made a treaty with the Rohillas, to expel the Marathas in return for a money payment. Nawab of Oudh carried out his part of the bargain; but the Rohilla chieftains refused to pay. In 1774 the Nawab concluded with the East India Company government of Calcutta a treaty of alliance, and he then called upon the British, in accordance with its terms, to supply a brigade to assist him in enforcing his claims against the Rohillas. This was done; in the Rohilla War, the Rohillas were driven beyond the Ganges to the east, and Bijnor was incorporated in the territories of the nawab, who in the same year (1774) ceded it to the British East India Company. During the rebellion of 1857 Bijnor was occupied by the nawab of Najibabad, a grandson of Zabita Khan, on 1 June. In spite of fighting between the Hindus and the Muslim Pashtuns, the Nawab succeeded in maintaining his position until 21 April 1858, when he was defeated by the British at Nagina.